A Hebrew name; the husband of the Virgin. Few municipalities carry the name of this important saint. But we should not forget that in the 19 th century, the Roman Catholic Church wanted to make of him the patron saint of industrial labour. Thus, in the new popular districts, churches were established under his patronage, as well as technical schools of the same name.
PRIT, S. Perhaps the most representative Spanish toponym which alludes to this martyr is that of Sant Boi de Llobregat, an industrial locality of the Baix Llobregrat in the province of Barcelona, which is a part of the metropolitan area of Barcelona. SIFU, S. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Kyle, P. In Catalonia, for example, most of its hagiotoponyms can be traced to the first half of the Middle Ages. And, for this reason, it serves as an interesting counterpoint, given the detail it offers, for the more general overview provided up to this juncture. Strontium, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic variations in the alkali basalt-trachyte-pantellerite-comendite series of Paektusan Volcano. As a consequence, a place name like Don Giovanni cannot be certainly considered a patrociny settlement. There are very few survivors from this disturbed period. Maier, W. In addition to the name strictly speaking, abbeys wanted to place themselves under the patronage of a gay dating de bell-lloc durgell saint, gay dating de bell-lloc durgell it was mostly the Virgin that they chose. ALCE, S. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. This bishop of Noyon died in had a late, but intense popularity.
The district grouped around its new church, needed a name to become a municipality, and so the municipality of Saint Joseph was created. This was certainly the last municipality of France to acquire an eponymic saint. This former hamlet, which gained in importance thanks to the presence of a road, was set up as a municipality. It took the name from its recently constructed church, dedicated to this English saint, simply because it was the first name of the priest-builder TAVERDET Recent churches We should mention these for the record. In the 20 th century, new churches were built in new districts.
These were dedicated to saints who undoubtedly belong to verifiable history. But these new acts of naming had no impact on the general toponymy, not even on the names of streets.
Joan of Arc, canonized in , left her name to some suburban churches and some catholic youth centres, and also to sports teams, which are these days completely secularized, except in their name. And where is God in all this? At Ferney Ain , Voltaire had the parish church knocked down and replaced it with a chapel bearing the inscription Deo erexit Voltaire, making it the only church in the universe dedicated to God alone. We can mention the case of Firminy Loire which possesses a church under Saint Firmin s patronage.
This city of the Loire seems to have been built on the ancient route from Lyon to Le Puy. Nothing suggested that this should become a place of worship to this obscure saint, other than the name of a Gallo-Roman owner, perhaps. We should remember that there was an abbey to Saint-Pierre in this place which did not leave any traces behind. The same play on words can be found in the county of Ain at Germagnat where the church is under Saint Germain s patronage. Here too we have the name of an ancient Gallo-Roman site domain of Germanius, a person who, if it existed, had no connection with Saint Germain.
The same situation obtains too in Haute-Marne with the village of Santenoge. Sometimes, the inverse approach was taken: from an obscure name, a saint s name was created. In the 17 th century this would become Saint-Igny, who was not recognized by the Church as the place of worship is still under the patronage of the Assumption of the Virgin The French Revolution During the French Revolution of , it was the goal to erase from French geography names which recalled the two dominant social orders nobility and clergy.
These are just a few examples, but we could considerably expand this list. But our revolutionaries were not linguists and they could not know that this name meant from the Gallic Rigomagus the market of the king. So, in Ain, Saint-Didier-de-Renom became little by little Plantey its current name , because the patron of the parish had changed Didier being abandoned in favour of Pierre. There are very few survivors from this disturbed period.
It is true that this only affects the second element of the place name, of little currency in present-day usage and largely reserved for administrative purposes. But this is just the name of a hamlet.
However, at the end of the 19 th century, the name of La Roche-Vineuse reappeared, doubtless to avoid postal confusion with homonymous villages. These issues are often only addressed in footnotes. To a large extent we are ignorant of the reasons behind such modifications, but we would be inclined to think that the parishioners wanted to replace an old, worn out saint Sanctus defatigatus, according to Romain by a new and more effective one.
However, in every instance that we have been able to find more precise explanations, we could see that it in fact concerned a physical change to the place. For example, in Saint-Trivier Ain , the ancient church was abandoned for a more central church. We could give many similar examples. No link with willow. The explanations given in classic works of onomastics must be abandoned. But the reality is more complex. The North is a region formed from calcareous layers with important springs. This fact permitted the development of human settlement that was both stronger and more ancient.
It should be stressed here that all the toponyms included in the gazetteer are characterised according to a given gay dating de bell-lloc durgell element from a total of 17 possible concepts. La varietat de disposicions que presenten aquests. Bordoy aprofita de nou materials proce de nts de La verdad sin rebozo. Full Text Available The present study was to test the hypothesis that selected bacteria instilled into the gastrointestinal gay dating de bell-lloc durgell could help in converting nitrogenous wastes accumulated due to renal insufficiency into nontoxic compounds; thereby, ameliorating the biochemical imbalance. Click the buttons below to like our page and stay up to date with what's happening. Its innovative character, and the connections that it can frequently establish with immediate reality and which are often impossible to obtain via other sourcesconstitute an aspect worthy of the greatest attention. I48v: Expl. A report of the 6 th nationwide survey in San Cucufate Saint Cucuphas. Horta, . National Museum. Lewis and A.
At the time of christianization, the place names were already quite fixed and hagionyms were rarely imposed. In the South, we have except in the regions of vineyards regions covered with forests.
Little by little these would become cultivated and churches were built to serve the newcomers. Often, in this region of scattered houses, the church was the only focal point and houses were gradually constructed around the place of worship. On the other hand, in regions of more ancient settlement, the church was built in the centre of an already existing and named village. It is as well to remember though that the place name Saint-Martin is not a means of honouring Saint Martin; it is rather a way of naming a new site. It is very possible that the church was built in the middle of an existing village, in the place of a temple to Mercury.
However, in order to find traces of the god, it would be necessary to destroy the current church. Thus we shall never know the truth. This important site was Segestre nowaday Cestres , a Gallic name, doubtless a stopping point between Langres and Autun; the church was built away from the village and it attracted new construction.
It became then the centre of the village and Cestres is no more than a hamlet. But a street called Saint-Martin is only the street of the church of Saint Martin. Essai de toponymie. In: Histoire de la Bourgogne. In: L Onomastique au carrefour des sciences humaines.
Introduction I propose undertaking an empirical study of the presence of religious place names hagiotoponyms or patrociny names within the toponymy of Catalonia. My starting point for this is a very simple consideration: a hagiotoponym is a place name that alludes to a holy or sacred place; and, by extension, a hagiotoponym is a place name that alludes to any aspect of religion MOREU-REY 89, As a general rule, and at least among European countries, the significance of their hagiotoponymy, or religious toponymy extends well beyond a simple consideration of its taxonomy; that is, a concern for the problem of classifying toponyms.
Indeed, hagiotoponyms provide us with a wealth of qualitative information about very basic aspects of a region s history. And, furthermore, albeit indirectly, religious place names provide us with information about important aspects of that region s geography. In referring expressly to the historical value of religious place names in Catalan toponymy, he writes: The information that can be derived from the presence of hagiotoponyms is highly valuable, because, in general, the devotion expressed for a saint can be perfectly framed in a given epoch or period of our history.
In Catalonia, for example, most of its hagiotoponyms can be traced to the first half of the Middle Ages. To date, studies of the hagiotoponymy of Catalonia have taken a predominantly historical focus and adopted an approach that can be described as above all thematic. In other words, they have, in the main, undertaken analyses of documented evidence and have, typically, examined the introduction of a given religious invocation understood in its broadest sense and considering all possible implications.
But the author aims to do much more than simply analyse these names: after locating them on the map, he converts them into reference points from which he draws a range of different data archaeological, geographical, ethnographic, bibliographic and historical that are related, directly or indirectly, to these places. In short, the hagiotoponymic study conducted by MOREU-REY, which focuses on a specific invocation, gradually becomes a unique means of reconstructing history, in its broadest sense, within the framework of a given region and society. Here, the analysis I propose undertaking is quite distinct.
My aim is to study the hagiotoponymy from a geographical perspective that is, emphasising the distribution of this type of toponym throughout the region , and focusing on its present-day significance rather than on its historical importance. However, I should stress that when I speak of a place name s significance, I allude to its relevance as a toponymic element endowed with spatial meaning and which can be depicted on a map and capable, therefore, of transmitting specific information about a given place. In conducting this study I have drawn on a number of relatively new sources of information which have facilitated my analysis greatly: I refer, specifically, to the official gazetteer of Catalan toponymy henceforth NOTMC.
Basically, my analysis centres on a study of this set of 3, toponyms. Finally, I include a section of conclusions that seeks to make a number of basic reflections on the subject studied here. A brief note on the importance of Catalonia s hagiotoponymy Catalonia, which since the introduction of the Constitution has acquired the political status of an autonomous community within the Spanish state, is a historical nation with deep roots in the Christian tradition. In fact, its incorporation within the territory of the Roman Empire undergoing a comprehensive process of Romanization from the end of the 1 st century BC and its subsequent assimilation within, first, the Visigoth after the 5 th century and, later, Carolingian dominions after the 8 th century , facilitated the diffusion and progressive hold over the lands of Christianity and its institutions specifically via the Catholic Church.
The period from the 9 th to the 12 th centuries was particularly important in the political construction of Catalonia, to the extent that it was during these years that its process of territorial unification and institutional independence was achieved. For all these reasons, it is of little surprise that in these centuries hagiotoponyms took root in Catalonia, a process that was characterised by two main features: a the greater prevalence of hagiotoponyms in the north and east of the country, coinciding with the area of earliest agrarian settlement and colonisation see the map of religious place names in MOREU-REY 5, for further details ; and b the co-existence of a medieval ecclesiastical colonisation with other forms of colonisation; a coexistence that would favour, in practice, the diversification of Catalan toponymy, which was already very diverse, as COROMINES points out 7 A present-day example of the significance of hagiotoponyms within Catalan toponymy can be seen by examining the names of the region s municipalities.
In Catalonia, there are currently municipalities, each with its corresponding name. Of these names, are hagiotoponyms; that is, Their characteristics and prevalence are very uneven and, to a certain extent, mirror the main traits described below for Catalan hagiotoponymy as a whole : 89 are male hagiotoponyms Among the latter, Santa Maria 7 cases and Santa Coloma 4 cases stand out above all the others.
Questions concerning the region s hagiotoponymy acquire considerable social significance in Catalonia, related in all probability to what is known in Spain s contemporary history as the religious question that is, the tension between ecclesiastical power and civil society, which on a number of occasions has resulted in open conflict. Evidence of this is the debate caused by changes to municipal names when they involve a religious invocation; that is, when a hagiotoponym is affected.
Historically, the most illustrative case in this regard was the secularisation of the hagiotoponyms of the Catalan municipalities during Spain s revolution and civil war , which the author has examined elsewhere TORT An initial analysis: male and female hagiotoponyms It is certainly significant that more than two thirds of the hagiotoponyms in Catalonia 2, to be specific, or The remaining First, I should point out that I do not intend to examine here the reasons for this imbalance in the hagiotoponyms by gender, although there must have been historical and religious reasons for this development.
However, the approach adopted in this study, which seeks above all to understand the present-day reality, prevents me from considering questions with a marked chronological component. Below I look at each set of hagiotoponyms in turn in order to establish a basic characterization of their make-up Male hagiotoponyms: general considerations The 2, male hagiotoponyms are formed from a total of invocations, of which only 44 appear ten or more times as place names. These 44 invocations account for 1, hagiotoponyms that is, A number of interesting features are worth mentioning in relation to the distribution of these 44 invocations.
Second, there is the surprisingly poor showing of certain names that have enjoyed and continue to enjoy considerable popularity as first names in Catalan society: such is the case of Sant Josep 16 cases , and even Sant Jordi, with slightly more uses 31 cases but still relatively few compared to the main four.
The remaining male hagiotoponyms are formed from invocations to a total of 94 saints, none of which is referred to on more than nine occasions. Of these, 42 figure just once in the gazetteer. The detailed list of these invocations included below provides further evidence of the nature of Catalonia s hagiotoponymy and highlights the need to study them in the local context in which they occur.